I think I may have solved the problem just by messing around.
I was staring at the files before trying to make another disc, when I noticed some of the filenames were very long / contained irregular characters. I remembered that Windows generally isn't into that sort of thing, so I thought that maybe the CD writer was the same case.
I went through and renamed all of the tracks to short, single word filenames and lo-and-behold; it all worked.
Sorry for troubling you busy and important people, you can now move on and solve other problems. But I warn you, I shall return should I find more problems.